1. Biliary system: It is the infection route of the current Chinese patients. Such as common bile duct stones, biliary tract ascaris or clonorchiasis combined with acute suppurative common bile duct stones, bacteria can move up along the bile duct, infect the liver and form liver abscesses.
  2. Abdominal infection (such as gangrenous appendicitis, suppurative pelvic inflammatory disease, etc.), intestinal infection (such as ulcerative colitis, bacillary dysentery, etc.), hemorrhoid infection, etc. It can cause thrombophlebitis of the portal vein branches, and the septic emboli can enter the liver along the portal vein system after falling off, causing liver abscess. Owing to the widespread availability of antibiotics, infections by this route are rare.
  3. Lymphatic system: If there are purulent lesions such as cholecystitis, subphrenic abscess, gastroduodenal perforation, etc., bacteria can invade the liver through the lymphatic system.
  4. Blood infection: purulent infection of any part of the body, such as upper respiratory tract infection, acute osteomyelitis, subacute endocarditis, furuncle, etc. When complicated by bacteremia, pathogenic bacteria can enter the liver from the hepatic artery.
  5. Direct invasion: When there is an open injury to the liver, bacteria can directly invade through the wound. Occasionally, after a subcapsular hematoma is formed after a closed liver injury, the original bacteria in the liver can turn the hematoma into an abscess.
  6. Other unexplained methods: Many liver abscesses have no obvious cause, such as occult liver abscesses. There may be some infectious lesions in the body. When the body’s defenses are weakened, unexpected bacteremia can lead to liver inflammation and abscesses. Occult liver abscesses of 25 points have been reported to be associated with diabetes. Occasionally, bacterial cultures of liver abscesses are negative, and improper anaerobic culture techniques cannot be ruled out.

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